AlMughtaribeen University AlMughtaribeen University
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DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)

 

DIABETES MELLITUS OVERVIEW

*      Characterized by a combination of insulin resistance and altered insulin secretion.

*      Secondary complications are more responsible for loss of working ability, invalidism, reduced life expectancy, and Quality Of Life than elevated blood glucose.

GLOBAL BURDEN

*      Serious illness with multiple complications and premature mortality

*      Accounting average 10% on Health care expenditure in many countries

*      WHO estimates : more than 180 million people worldwide have diabetes

*      2005: 1.1 million died from Diabetes.

*      80% Death: low and middle income countries.

*      Half of Deaths >70 years of age

*      50% of diabetic deaths: women

*      Much of increase in incidence occur in developing countries : due to population growth, ageing, behavioral factors ( tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles) that lead to obesity and Hyperlipidemia.

*      Usually affecting middle –age, productive years of lives, age between 35-64

*      Growing incidence of Type 2 DM  at a younger age

DM IN SUDAN

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES:

Diabetes Mellitus ranks second among the major NCDs.

The prevalence is highest among adults

•      19.2% (Khartoum state risk factor survey 2005-2006)

•      14.5%  (Sudan House Hold survey 2010)

  • Some community based studies revealed a high prevalence of diabetes of 24.3% in Argo Town in Dongola (2003) and 24.6% in Alkabashi Area 2006.

•      Poor glycaemic control (88%)

•      Complications are common   (67%)

•      High mortality rates among children.

PREVALENCE OF DM RISK FACTORS

Tobacco use:

  • 29.1% for smoking
  • 25.9% for snuff

Physical inactivity:                                     

  • 87% physically inactive

Obesity & overweight:

  • 41.5% for male
  • 62.5% for female

Hyperlipidemia (High blood cholesterol):

  • 19.6% for male
  • 19.9% for female